Euclid's proof of the Pythagorean Theorem

If you have a Shockwave Flash plugin for your browser, you can watch an animation of this. By using a "save link" operation, you can download it. The original was here . (One level up were some other animations, not related to mathematics history.)

Evaluating the quality of information in a source

This site provides some help in this necessary step in any research project. It's written for legal professionals, but most of the methods are much more widely applicable. Be sure to read the Important: note further down the page before using any external links at the site.

Research Minutes is a series for undergraduate students at Cornell University covering library research topics. This one explains how to identify scholarly journals. This one is about reading citations. This one tells one how to identify substantive news stories. The latter two, you should note, are on YouTube. If you look down the column of related videos on the right-hand side of the page, you will see several more that could be quite helpful. Of course, it being YouTube, you'll also see some which won't help with your research paper but might help relieve any stress it may be causing.

This is a Quick Tutorial on "Reading Scientific Papers" from Purdue physics librarians.

A team of WSU librarians has created an information literacy tutorial to help you understand the research process.

This is a short guide specifically devoted to evaluating Web sites.

Of course, before you can begin evaluating your sources you have to find some. This guide to searching the literature is written for senior physics projects and includes some advice about grant proposals and journal submissions. However, mutatis mutandis, it provides excellent general strategies. Finding Web sites, print indices, and other such replacements for those listed provides a most highly appropriate exit exam to determine how well you've learned those strategies.

Founding of Earliest Universities

Question marks in parenthesis indicate those of arguable status.

c. 300bc  Library/Museum, Alexandria (?)
970  al-Azhar, Cairo (?)
1004  opening of House of Wisdom, Baghdad
1064  Parma
c. 1080  Bologna
1175  Modena
C. 12  Oxford and Paris
1200  Perugia
1206  Hacettepe, Ankara
1209  Cambridge
1220  Montpellier
1222  Padua
1224  Naples
1229  Toulouse
1240  Siena
1290  Lisboa

The first "modern" university was Halle as reorganized in 1664, after being founded in 1501.

European Philosophical Ages

After the Ancient Age come the Ages of:
  1. Belief C.5--15, includes the Dark C.5--10 and Medieval C.10--15

  2. Adventure or The Renaissance 1450--1600, ending with the burning of Bruno on 19 Feb 1600 by Chief Inq. Bellarmine

  3. Reason C.17, roughly Galileo to Leibniz, including Bacon, Hobbs, and Spinoza

  4. Enlightenment C.18, including Locke, Hume, Voltaire, and the US Constitution

  5. Ideology C.19, Kant to Mach, including Mill, Marx, Nietzsche, Kierkegaard

  6. Analysis C.20, including Russell, Peirce, and Sarte in the first half
This is but one version. Boundaries are approximate, and some names may be listed otherwise by other listmakers. You should compare these Ages with contemporaneous periods in art, architecture, music, business and economics, trade, politics, etc. (When was the Baroque era? Roccoco? Arte Deco? Regency? Reign of Terror?) I have made some examples for the 17th Century: timeline [PDF], events, people.

Mayan Calendar for F07 semester -- Extended

Mon 27 Aug 11 Caban5Mol
Tue 28 Aug Etznab6 Mol
Wed 29 Aug Caunac7 Mol
Thu 30 Aug Ahau8 Mol
Fri 31 Aug Imix9 Mol
Sat 01 Sep Ik10 Mol
Sun 02 Sep Akbal11 Mol
Mon 03 Sep Kan12 Mol
Tue 04 Sep Chicchan13 Mol
Wed 05 Sep Cimi14 Mol
Thu 06 Sep Manik15 Mol
Fri 07 Sep Lamat16 Mol
Sat 08 Sep Muluc17 Mol
Sun 09 Sep Oc18 Mol
Mon 10 Sep Chuen19 Mol
Tue 11 Sep Eb0 Chen
Wed 12 Sep Ben1 Chen
Thu 13 Sep Ix2 Chen
Fri 14 Sep Men3 Chen
Sat 15 Sep Cib4 Chen
Sun 16 Sep Caban5 Chen
Mon 17 Sep Etznab6 Chen
Tue 18 Sep Caunac7 Chen
Wed 19 Sep Ahau8 Chen
Thu 20 Sep Imix9 Chen
Fri 21 Sep Ik10 Chen
Sat 22 Sep Akbal11 Chen
Sun 23 Sep Kan12 Chen
Mon 24 Sep Chicchan13 Chen
Tue 25 Sep Cimi14 Chen
Wed 26 Sep Manik15 Chen
Thu 27 Sep Lamat16 Chen
Fri 28 Sep Muluc17 Chen
Sat 29 Sep Oc18 Chen
Sun 30 Sep Chuen19 Chen
Mon 01 Oct Eb0 Yax
Tue 02 Oct Ben1 Yax
Wed 03 Oct Ix2 Yax
Thu 04 Oct Men3 Yax
Fri 05 Oct Cib4 Yax
Sat 06 Oct Caban5 Yax
Sun 07 Oct Etznab6 Yax
Mon 08 Oct Caunac7 Yax
Tue 09 Oct Ahau8 Yax
Wed 10 Oct Imix9 Yax
Thu 11 Oct Ik10 Yax
Fri 12 Oct Akbal11 Yax
Sat 13 Oct Kan12 Yax
Sun 14 Oct Chicchan13 Yax
Mon 15 Oct Cimi14 Yax
Tue 16 Oct Manik15 Yax
Wed 17 Oct Lamat16 Yax
Thu 18 Oct Muluc17 Yax
Fri 19 Oct Oc18 Yax
Sat 20 Oct Chuen19 Yax
Sun 21 Oct Eb0 Zac
Mon 22 Oct Ben1 Zac
Tue 23 Oct Ix2 Zac
Wed 24 Oct Men 3 Zac
Thu 25 Oct Cib 4 Zac
Fri 26 Oct Caban5 Zac
Sat 27 Oct Etznab6 Zac
Sun 28 Oct Caunac7 Zac
Mon 29 Oct 9 Ahau8 Zac
Tue 30 Oct 10 Imix9 Zac
Wed 31 Oct 11 Ik10 Zac
Thu 01 Nov 12 Akbal11 Zac
Fri 02 Nov Kan12 Zac
Sat 03 Nov Chicchan13 Zac
Sun 04 Nov Cimi14 Zac
Mon 05 Nov Manik15 Zac
Tue 06 Nov Lamat16 Zac
Wed 07 Nov Muluc17 Zac
Thu 08 Nov Oc18 Zac
Fri 09 Nov Chuen19 Zac
Sat 10 Nov Eb0 Ceh
Sun 11 Nov Ben1 Ceh
Mon 12 Nov Ix2 Ceh
Tue 13 Nov Men3 Ceh
Wed 14 Nov Cib4 Ceh
Thu 15 Nov Caban5 Ceh
Fri 16 Nov Etznab6 Ceh
Sat 17 Nov Caunac7 Ceh
Sun 18 Nov Ahau8 Ceh
Mon 19 Nov Imix9 Ceh
Tue 20 Nov Ik10 Ceh
Wed 21 Nov Akbal11 Ceh
Thu 22 Nov Kan12 Ceh
Fri 23 Nov Chicchan13 Ceh
Sat 24 Nov Cimi14 Ceh
Sun 25 Nov Manik15 Ceh
Mon 26 Nov Lamat16 Ceh
Tue 27 Nov Muluc17 Ceh
Wed 28 Nov Oc18 Ceh
Thu 29 Nov Chuen19 Ceh
Fri 30 Nov Eb0 Mac
Sat 01 Dec Ben1 Mac
Sun 02 Dec Ix2 Mac
Mon 03 Dec Men3 Mac
Tue 04 Dec Cib4 Mac
Wed 05 Dec Caban5 Mac
Thu 06 Dec Etznab6 Mac
Fri 07 Dec Caunac7 Mac
Sat 08 Dec Ahau8 Mac
Sun 09 Dec Imix9 Mac
Mon 10 Dec Ik10 Mac
Tue 11 Dec Akbal11 Mac
Wed 12 Dec Kan12 Mac
Thu 13 Dec Chicchan13 Mac
Fri 14 Dec Cimi14 Mac
Sat 15 Dec Manik15 Mac
Thu 20 Dec Eb0 Kankin
Wed 09 Jan Eb0 Muan
Tue 29 Jan Eb0 Pax
Mon 18 Feb Eb0 Kayab
Sun 09 Mar Eb0 Cumku
Sat 29 Mar Eb0 Uayeb
Tue 03 Apr Caban0 Pop
Wed 23 Apr Caban0 Uo
Tue 13 May Caban0 Zip
Mon 02 June Caban0 Zotz
Sun 22 June Caban0 Tzec
Sat 12 Jul Caban0 Xul
Fri 01 Aug Caban0 Yaxkin
Thu 21 Aug Caban0 Mol

French Rep. Nonidi, Frimaire 29, 221
Gregorian Friday, December 21, AD 2012
Hebrew Tevet 8, AM 5773
Julian December 8, 2012
JDN 2,456,283
Mayan, 4 Ahau, 8 Cumku

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