Euclid's proof of the Pythagorean Theorem

If you have a Shockwave Flash plugin for your browser, you can watch an animation of this. By using a "save link" operation, you can download it. The original was here . (One level up were some other animations, not related to mathematics history.)


Evaluating the quality of information in a source

This site provides some help in this necessary step in any research project. It's written for legal professionals, but most of the methods are much more widely applicable. Be sure to read the Important: note further down the page before using any external links at the site.

Research Minutes is a series for undergraduate students at Cornell University covering library research topics. This one explains how to identify scholarly journals. This one is about reading citations. This one tells one how to identify substantive news stories. The latter two, you should note, are on YouTube. If you look down the column of related videos on the right-hand side of the page, you will see several more that could be quite helpful. Of course, it being YouTube, you'll also see some which won't help with your research paper but might help relieve any stress it may be causing.

This is a Quick Tutorial on "Reading Scientific Papers" from Purdue physics librarians.

A team of WSU librarians has created an information literacy tutorial to help you understand the research process.

This is a short guide specifically devoted to evaluating Web sites.

Of course, before you can begin evaluating your sources you have to find some. This guide to searching the literature is written for senior physics projects and includes some advice about grant proposals and journal submissions. However, mutatis mutandis, it provides excellent general strategies. Finding Web sites, print indices, and other such replacements for those listed provides a most highly appropriate exit exam to determine how well you've learned those strategies.


Founding of Earliest Universities

Question marks in parenthesis indicate those of arguable status.

c. 300bc  Library/Museum, Alexandria (?)
970  al-Azhar, Cairo (?)
1004  opening of House of Wisdom, Baghdad
1064  Parma
c. 1080  Bologna
1175  Modena
C. 12  Oxford and Paris
1200  Perugia
1206  Hacettepe, Ankara
1209  Cambridge
1220  Montpellier
1222  Padua
1224  Naples
1229  Toulouse
1240  Siena
1290  Lisboa

The first "modern" university was Halle as reorganized in 1664, after being founded in 1501.


European Philosophical Ages

After the Ancient Age come the Ages of:
  1. Belief C.5--15, includes the Dark C.5--10 and Medieval C.10--15

  2. Adventure or The Renaissance 1450--1600, ending with the burning of Bruno on 19 Feb 1600 by Chief Inq. Bellarmine

  3. Reason C.17, roughly Galileo to Leibniz, including Bacon, Hobbs, and Spinoza

  4. Enlightenment C.18, including Locke, Hume, Voltaire, and the US Constitution

  5. Ideology C.19, Kant to Mach, including Mill, Marx, Nietzsche, Kierkegaard

  6. Analysis C.20, including Russell, Peirce, and Sarte in the first half
This is but one version. Boundaries are approximate, and some names may be listed otherwise by other listmakers. You should compare these Ages with contemporaneous periods in art, architecture, music, business and economics, trade, politics, etc. (When was the Baroque era? Roccoco? Arte Deco? Regency? Reign of Terror?) I have made some examples for the 17th Century: timeline [PDF], events, people.


Mayan Calendar for F07 semester -- Extended

Mon 27 Aug 12.19.14.10.17 11 Caban5Mol
Tue 28 Aug 12.19.14.10.1812 Etznab6 Mol
Wed 29 Aug 12.19.14.10.1913 Caunac7 Mol
Thu 30 Aug 12.19.14.11.01 Ahau8 Mol
Fri 31 Aug 12.19.14.11.12 Imix9 Mol
Sat 01 Sep 12.19.14.11.23 Ik10 Mol
Sun 02 Sep 12.19.14.11.34 Akbal11 Mol
Mon 03 Sep 12.19.14.11.45 Kan12 Mol
Tue 04 Sep 12.19.14.11.56 Chicchan13 Mol
Wed 05 Sep 12.19.14.11.67 Cimi14 Mol
Thu 06 Sep 12.19.14.11.78 Manik15 Mol
Fri 07 Sep 12.19.14.11.89 Lamat16 Mol
Sat 08 Sep 12.19.14.11.910 Muluc17 Mol
Sun 09 Sep 12.19.14.11.1011 Oc18 Mol
Mon 10 Sep 12.19.14.11.1112 Chuen19 Mol
Tue 11 Sep 12.19.14.11.1213 Eb0 Chen
Wed 12 Sep 12.19.14.11.131 Ben1 Chen
Thu 13 Sep 12.19.14.11.142 Ix2 Chen
Fri 14 Sep 12.19.14.11.153 Men3 Chen
Sat 15 Sep 12.19.14.11.164 Cib4 Chen
Sun 16 Sep 12.19.14.11.175 Caban5 Chen
Mon 17 Sep 12.19.14.11.186 Etznab6 Chen
Tue 18 Sep 12.19.14.11.197 Caunac7 Chen
Wed 19 Sep 12.19.14.12.08 Ahau8 Chen
Thu 20 Sep 12.19.14.12.19 Imix9 Chen
Fri 21 Sep 12.19.14.12.210 Ik10 Chen
Sat 22 Sep 12.19.14.12.311 Akbal11 Chen
Sun 23 Sep 12.19.14.12.412 Kan12 Chen
Mon 24 Sep 12.19.14.12.513 Chicchan13 Chen
Tue 25 Sep 12.19.14.12.61 Cimi14 Chen
Wed 26 Sep 12.19.14.12.72 Manik15 Chen
Thu 27 Sep 12.19.14.12.83 Lamat16 Chen
Fri 28 Sep 12.19.14.12.94 Muluc17 Chen
Sat 29 Sep 12.19.14.12.105 Oc18 Chen
Sun 30 Sep 12.19.14.12.116 Chuen19 Chen
Mon 01 Oct 12.19.14.12.127 Eb0 Yax
Tue 02 Oct 12.19.14.12.138 Ben1 Yax
Wed 03 Oct 12.19.14.12.149 Ix2 Yax
Thu 04 Oct 12.19.14.12.1510 Men3 Yax
Fri 05 Oct 12.19.14.12.1611 Cib4 Yax
Sat 06 Oct 12.19.14.12.1712 Caban5 Yax
Sun 07 Oct 12.19.14.12.1813 Etznab6 Yax
Mon 08 Oct 12.19.14.12.191 Caunac7 Yax
Tue 09 Oct 12.19.14.13.02 Ahau8 Yax
Wed 10 Oct 12.19.14.13.13 Imix9 Yax
Thu 11 Oct 12.19.14.13.24 Ik10 Yax
Fri 12 Oct 12.19.14.13.35 Akbal11 Yax
Sat 13 Oct 12.19.14.13.46 Kan12 Yax
Sun 14 Oct 12.19.14.13.57 Chicchan13 Yax
Mon 15 Oct 12.19.14.13.68 Cimi14 Yax
Tue 16 Oct 12.19.14.13.79 Manik15 Yax
Wed 17 Oct 12.19.14.13.810 Lamat16 Yax
Thu 18 Oct 12.19.14.13.911 Muluc17 Yax
Fri 19 Oct 12.19.14.13.1012 Oc18 Yax
Sat 20 Oct 12.19.14.13.1113 Chuen19 Yax
Sun 21 Oct 12.19.14.13.121 Eb0 Zac
Mon 22 Oct 12.19.14.13.132 Ben1 Zac
Tue 23 Oct 12.19.14.13.143 Ix2 Zac
Wed 24 Oct 12.19.14.13.154 Men 3 Zac
Thu 25 Oct 12.19.14.13.165 Cib 4 Zac
Fri 26 Oct 12.19.14.13.176 Caban5 Zac
Sat 27 Oct 12.19.14.13.187 Etznab6 Zac
Sun 28 Oct 12.19.14.13.198 Caunac7 Zac
Mon 29 Oct 12.19.14.14.0 9 Ahau8 Zac
Tue 30 Oct 12.19.14.14.1 10 Imix9 Zac
Wed 31 Oct 12.19.14.14.2 11 Ik10 Zac
Thu 01 Nov 12.19.14.14.3 12 Akbal11 Zac
Fri 02 Nov 12.19.14.14.413 Kan12 Zac
Sat 03 Nov 12.19.14.14.51 Chicchan13 Zac
Sun 04 Nov 12.19.14.14.62 Cimi14 Zac
Mon 05 Nov 12.19.14.14.73 Manik15 Zac
Tue 06 Nov 12.19.14.14.84 Lamat16 Zac
Wed 07 Nov 12.19.14.14.95 Muluc17 Zac
Thu 08 Nov 12.19.14.14.106 Oc18 Zac
Fri 09 Nov 12.19.14.14.117 Chuen19 Zac
Sat 10 Nov 12.19.14.14.128 Eb0 Ceh
Sun 11 Nov 12.19.14.14.139 Ben1 Ceh
Mon 12 Nov 12.19.14.14.1410 Ix2 Ceh
Tue 13 Nov 12.19.14.14.1511 Men3 Ceh
Wed 14 Nov 12.19.14.14.1612 Cib4 Ceh
Thu 15 Nov 12.19.14.14.1713 Caban5 Ceh
Fri 16 Nov 12.19.14.14.181 Etznab6 Ceh
Sat 17 Nov 12.19.14.14.192 Caunac7 Ceh
Sun 18 Nov 12.19.14.15.03 Ahau8 Ceh
Mon 19 Nov 12.19.14.15.14 Imix9 Ceh
Tue 20 Nov 12.19.14.15.25 Ik10 Ceh
Wed 21 Nov 12.19.14.15.36 Akbal11 Ceh
Thu 22 Nov 12.19.14.15.47 Kan12 Ceh
Fri 23 Nov 12.19.14.15.58 Chicchan13 Ceh
Sat 24 Nov 12.19.14.15.69 Cimi14 Ceh
Sun 25 Nov 12.19.14.15.710 Manik15 Ceh
Mon 26 Nov 12.19.14.15.811 Lamat16 Ceh
Tue 27 Nov 12.19.14.15.912 Muluc17 Ceh
Wed 28 Nov 12.19.14.15.1013 Oc18 Ceh
Thu 29 Nov 12.19.14.15.111 Chuen19 Ceh
Fri 30 Nov 12.19.14.15.122 Eb0 Mac
Sat 01 Dec 12.19.14.15.133 Ben1 Mac
Sun 02 Dec 12.19.14.15.144 Ix2 Mac
Mon 03 Dec 12.19.14.15.155 Men3 Mac
Tue 04 Dec 12.19.14.15.166 Cib4 Mac
Wed 05 Dec 12.19.14.15.177 Caban5 Mac
Thu 06 Dec 12.19.14.15.188 Etznab6 Mac
Fri 07 Dec 12.19.14.15.199 Caunac7 Mac
Sat 08 Dec 12.19.14.16.010 Ahau8 Mac
Sun 09 Dec 12.19.14.16.111 Imix9 Mac
Mon 10 Dec 12.19.14.16.212 Ik10 Mac
Tue 11 Dec 12.19.14.16.313 Akbal11 Mac
Wed 12 Dec 12.19.14.16.41 Kan12 Mac
Thu 13 Dec 12.19.14.16.52 Chicchan13 Mac
Fri 14 Dec 12.19.14.16.63 Cimi14 Mac
Sat 15 Dec 12.19.14.16.74 Manik15 Mac
 
Thu 20 Dec 12.19.14.16.129 Eb0 Kankin
 
Wed 09 Jan 12.19.14.17.123 Eb0 Muan
 
Tue 29 Jan 12.19.15.0.1210 Eb0 Pax
 
Mon 18 Feb 12.19.15.1.124 Eb0 Kayab
 
Sun 09 Mar 12.19.15.2.1211 Eb0 Cumku
 
Sat 29 Mar 12.19.15.3.125 Eb0 Uayeb
 
Tue 03 Apr 12.19.15.3.1710 Caban0 Pop
 
Wed 23 Apr 12.19.15.4.174 Caban0 Uo
 
Tue 13 May 12.19.15.5.1711 Caban0 Zip
 
Mon 02 June 12.19.15.6.175 Caban0 Zotz
 
Sun 22 June 12.19.15.7.1712 Caban0 Tzec
 
Sat 12 Jul 12.19.15.8.176 Caban0 Xul
 
Fri 01 Aug 12.19.15.9.1713 Caban0 Yaxkin
 
Thu 21 Aug 12.19.15.10.177 Caban0 Mol
 

French Rep. Nonidi, Frimaire 29, 221
Gregorian Friday, December 21, AD 2012
Hebrew Tevet 8, AM 5773
Julian December 8, 2012
JDN 2,456,283
Mayan 13.0.0.0.0, 4 Ahau, 8 Cumku


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