# Sanjeev Dasrao Muskawad and Yeo Joon Hock
Cardiovascular Dynamics Laboratory, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

## Human aortic valve geometry - Euclidean and non-Euclidean approaches

Out of four valves in the human heart the two valves, which are in the outlet position of the ventricles, have three semilunar cusps bounded by pockets called sinuses. The illustrative pictures of aortic valve and actual wire frame model are used to explain the geometry of aortic valve. Review of literature on understanding of aortic valve geometry, is presented and unresolved problems are identified.
At present there is no satisfactory model which can describe the three dimensional geometry of the sinus and cusp unit for healthy and diseased valve. There is also asymmetry between the three leaflets, which poses problem in solving the geometry from the angle of modeling.
The non-Euclidean approach has been used in calculating the surface areas/ radii of various parts of valve such as sinus wall and non-coapting surface of leaflet using some assumptions.
The most important application oft these modeling approaches is to identify the deviation patterns in the geometry in diseases.